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Plyometric Training

Physiology of Plyometrics

Plyometrics refers to exercise that enables a muscle to reach maximum force in the shortest possible time. The muscle is loaded with an eccentric (lengthening) action, followed immediately by a concentric (shortening) action.


Example Workouts;-

~Squat jumps~



1. 4 x 8 repetitions of each exercise
2. 2 minutes between sets
3. Fatigue must not impair speed of performance
4. Start with feet just beyond shoulder-width apart
5. Bend the knees to a three-quarter squat position
6. Extend the legs to jump into the air
7. Land and immediately power up into another jump
8. Keep the torso upright
9. Look straight ahead
10.Land on the balls of the feet
11.Use your arms to assist your jump power



~Side to side jumps~
1. 4 x 8 repetitions of each exercise
2. 2 minutes between sets
3. Fatigue must not impair speed of performance
4. Stand with your feet just beyond shoulder-width apart
5. Slightly bend your knees
6. Extend your legs and leap to one side
7. Land with your feet just beyond shoulder-width apart and on the balls of your feet
8. Immediately react to the ground and jump to the other side (use a relatively low trajectory)
9. Land and jump back across to the other side
10. Keep your trunk upright and look straight ahead of you


~Bunny Jumps~



1. 4 x 8 repetitions of each exercise
2. 2 minutes between sets
3. Fatigue must not impair speed of performance
4. Start with feet just beyond shoulder-width apart
5. Bend your knees to a three-quarter squat position
6. Swing your arms back and past your hips
7. Drive your legs explosively upward to lift your body from the ground and jump forward
8. Keep your trunk upright during flight
9. Extend your legs in front of your body to get you feet out in front of you
10.Land on the balls of your feet and spring into another jump



Used in the right programme these simple yet effective exercises can revolutionise your training and performance by dramatically increasing your speed, power and reaction times.

http://www.spinalhealth.net/plyometrics.html

Avoid Shoulder Pain



~Shoulder exercises to help you avoid shoulder pain~


1. Balance your upper body workouts


A good way to avoid shoulder injuries is to make sure your upper body strength sessions are balanced. This means that every push or press exercise must be balanced with a pull or row exercise. Too many athletes and weight trainers focus on developing the 'mirror muscles', the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid and pectorals. As a consequence, the 'non-mirror muscles', lower trapezius, rhomboids, latissimus dorsi and rear deltoid, are underdeveloped. This leads to a muscular imbalance about the shoulder, which results in poor scapular stabilisation. since the non-mirror muscles are the ones that work to stabilise the scapula. In addition, over-developed mirror muscles can lead to a round-shouldered posture, which incorrectly places the scapula up and forward. Redressing this imbalance is very important for the prevention and rehabilitation of shoulder impingement injuries

The following is an example of a balanced upper body workout which I would recommend. Note the 1:1 ratio between push/press and pull/row exercises

-Bench press (pectorals, anterior deltoid)
-Seated row (rhomboids, mid trapezius, latissimus)
-Flies (pectorals)
-Rear lying prone flies (rhomboids, mid trapezius, rear deltoid)
-Lat raises (anterior mid deltoid, upper trapezius)
-Lat pull downs wide grip (latissimus, lower trapezius)

For those who are prone to shoulder pain or are recovering from a shoulder injury, I would recommend changing the ratio to 2:1 in favour of the non-mirror muscles. Remember, it is the push/press exercises that cause the problems, so you should change your emphasis until the imbalances have been redressed. Other pull/row exercises include: bent over row, single-arm dumbbell rows, single-arm cable pulls, bent-over rear fly, pull ups (wide or narrow), stiff-arm pull downs with cable/flexaband.



2. Limit your range of movement, and take it easy



Rehabilitation from a shoulder impingement injury should focus on rotator-cuff strengthening, as explained in Dr Kemp's article last time. However, it's important to remember that when it comes to re-introducing your weight training exercises, you must progress slowly. Often this means avoiding certain ranges of motion where the shoulder joint sub-acromial space is compressed the most. The impingement zone to avoid is between 70 and 120 degrees of shoulder abduction (when you move the arm laterally away from the side of the body)

To start training the non-mirror muscles, begin with the seated row, because the shoulder joint is not abducted in this exercise. Once the pain is completely gone, then introduce the overhead exercises such as pull ups and lat pull downs. You should be even more careful when it comes to the mirror-muscle exercises. I would avoid lateral raises, upright rows and shoulder presses completely for a while. However, incline bench press with arm abducted to 45 degrees would be a good choice to start again. Slowly build up to the normal bench-press range as strength improves.
It is also important that you don't increase your weights too soon. Remember that the ligaments and tendons have to adapt to exercise as well as the muscles, and they may take longer to do so. I would suggest staying in the 12-20-rep range for a time before pushing up the weights, especially with the mirror-muscle exercises. While I realise that it is important for many athletes to be strong at exercises like the bench and shoulder press, I would recommend that you build up slowly to maximum strength. Reducing your reps by two every two weeks is a good guideline. During heavy workouts, ensure that you warm up the shoulder joint and rotator cuff thoroughly prior to lifting

3. Correct scapula positioning when performing exercises


The correct position for the scapula (shoulder blade) is back and rotated down. Essentially, this means maintaining a good 'military posture', with shoulders back and chest out. A round-shouldered or hunched posture is to be avoided at all times. To achieve the correct position, you need to use your rhomboids, mid and lower trapezius muscles to retract the shoulder and pull the scapula down.
When you perform any upper body weight training exercise, always get into the habit of starting with good upper body posture and pinching the shoulder blades together. You should feel that the scapula is a solid platform which keeps the shoulder correctly positioned while you perform the exercise. As mentioned last issue, a good way to learn the correct position is during the seated row exercise by keeping your scapula back and down while you move your arms. During the exercise, you should feel that the rhomboids and trapezius muscles are statically contracting to hold the scapula in place, and the latissimus is working to perform the movement. Once you have the feel for maintained scapula stability during the seated row, try to achieve it during all upper-body exercises. What you might find is that exercises such as the press up or front raise, where the shoulder may become impinged, will not be painful if you stabilise your scapula correctly. In effect, by using the scapular muscles you can achieve better shoulder mechanics and avoid injury

Correct scapular stability is difficult to learn and demands a great deal of practice and concentration during your training sessions. You first need to understand what the correct position is, and often this requires a trainer/physio to guide you. Then, during training sessions, instruction and observation from a trainer can help you achieve and maintain the correct shoulder position.

4. Sports specific exercises - plyometrics for the shoulder


Just as rehabilitation training for leg injuries requires a functional progression from simple strength exercises to sports specific exercises, so does rehab for the shoulder. This means that for the athlete eg, a thrower or tennis player, conventional resistance exercises in the gym may not be enough to allow a full return to competition. Often what is needed to bridge the gap are plyometric exercises for the shoulder that mimic sports specific movements. Plyometrics for the shoulder usually involve medicine balls of various weights.
Plyometric exercises have two advantages. First, they are performed fast and second they involve stretch-shortening-cycle movement patterns. This means they are much more sports-specific than conventional resistance exercises. In particular, plyometric exercises for the rear-shoulder and external rotator muscles are very useful because they provide eccentric training for these muscles. This improves their ability to control the shoulder during the powerful concentric actions of the pectorals and anterior deltoid involved in throwing or serving. Thus it's important to ensure that your plyometric workouts are balanced between the prime movers (pectorals, latissimus, anterior deltoid) and the rear-shoulder and upper-back muscles. I would recommend incorporating shoulder plyometrics during general conditioning workouts to prevent injuries and in the later stages of shoulder rehabilitation to guarantee a functional progression back to competition.



Sources>>>sportsinjurybulletin

Everest Base Camp Trekking

Everest Base Camp Trekking is one of the most popular trekking in Everest region, where Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay set off on their epic journey in 1953. It offers wonderful opportunities of countless mountains view including top of the world “Mt. Everest” and unique experience with cultural heritage of great Sherpa, known as Snow Leopard and scene of flora and fauna during the trekking.

The trail of the Everest Base Camp Trek goes through the Sherpa villages, which are interspersed with magnificent forests of rhododendron, magnolia and giant firs in the low el elevation. The home of the world's highest Buddhist monasteries, the highest peaks on Earth, Everest Base Camp (5,364m) itself, Khumbu glacier and icefall are main attraction in the Everest Base Camp Trekking. Probably, Everest Base Camp Trekking is one of the most well-known in the world, due to it worthless its beauties. Everest Base Camp begins from Kathmandu to Lukla early in the morning by Mountain airstrip in the heart of the Khumbu Region. The trail of Everest Base Camp Trekking leads right into the heart of the Himalaya; a famous historical trading town of Namche Bazaar, the Buddhist monastery Tanbuche, world highest farm Dinbucge and Everest Base Camp.

Everest Base camp Trekking route offers to best advantage in the morning is absolutely thrilling and stunning and is rightly believe to be one of the most magnificent in the world. While on the Everest Base Camp trekking you have chance visit famous view point Kalapater (5550m), where we can get some awesome views of the Himalayan giants which literally numb your senses with breathless admiration that beholds the eye; and makes up for the lung-bursting climb that took you up there. This also includes fantastic views of the south west face of the colossal Mt. Everest from closest distance and others mountains; Lhose (8510m), Nupse (7879m), Pumori (7145m), Lingtring (6695m), Amadablam (6814m), Thamserku (6723m), Kusumkagru (6370m) so on. That’s why it is known as Kalapater Trekking too. Collecting unforgettable experience, the trail descends in Sherpa heritages with verities vegetation and rarely Musk dear, Snow leopard’s sport provoking you come to again and again.

Everest Base Camp Trekking is accessible short flight from Kathmandu to Lukla or eight hours scenic drive capital city Kathmandu to Jiri. Nepal Mother House Treks arrange Everest Base Camp trekking hole in the year around with well experience Government License holder Guide, but the best time is beginning of September to mid November and begging of March to mid May. We arrange Everest Base Camp trekking according to client’s desire and holiday schedule.


Everest Base Camp Trekking Trip Key Information:


Trekking Destination: Everest Base Camp, Kalapatar

Activities: Trekking, Sightseeing, Scenic Mt. Everest Flight, Cultural Tour

Difficulty: Moderate

Max Elevation: (5,550m) at Kalapatar

Trek/Tour Style: Teahouse

Accommodation: Deluxe hotel in Ktm/ Lodge in Trekking

Meals: Full board on trek & Breakfast KTM

Operation: Hotel/Lodge

Transportation: Aero plane & private vehicle

Best Month: Sept - Nov & Mar - May

Trip Length: 17 days


Everest Base Camp Trekking (5,364m) Day to Day Suggested Itinerary:
Day 01: Arrive at Kathmandu,
Upon arrival at international airport meet assist and transfer to the Hotel (star category, very nice and centrally located at Thamel), take rest and free at afternoon.

Day 02: Kathmandu Valley Sightseeing pre- Treks (1350m)
Our Tour Guide led you explore around Kathmandu valley for the sight seen. Have explore historical and spiritual attractions; including the historic Kathmandu Durbar Square; the House of Living Goddess “Kumari” and Kasthamandup temple” Said that was built from single tree in 16th century, Big bell-Big drams, Erotic carving in old temple, old palace etc., Bouddhanath; one of the largest Stupas in Nepal, Swayambhunath; situated on top of the hill knows as the Monkey Temple is one of the oldest Buddhist Stupa in the world, which has been registered in UNESCO heritage side. Pasupatinath; Hindus holy place, Sadhus and pilgrims bathing at occasionally, funeral pyres burning on the Ghats, located on the holy Bagmati river. Finally we have sightseeing beautiful Patan Durbar squares; the Krisna Temple has build just by stone with incredible crafts, Patan king’s palace, Golden temple and much more. It is very famous for woodcarving, Metal works, Temples and Monasteries. If we have time there are still more remark site; the one of the oldest cities in Kathmandu valley “Bhaktapur” is known as Living Museum. Where, old brick paved enclave of old Royal palace, Nyathapola Temple, Datatriya temple exquisite artwork offers a picture of the grandeur of medieval Nepal. After these activates back to hotel and pre- prier for the treks. Stay overnight at hotel. Please, check your insurance details and have a copy of your travel medical insurance policy with you.

Day 03: Fly from Kathmandu to Lukla (2,800m) -30 munities, trek to Phakding (2,640m) -3 to 4 hours
Early in the morning fly Kathmandu to Lukla (30 to 40 min) then final preparations for the trekking. From Lukla you'll pass Chaurikharka village and make a descent towards the Ghat (2,530m). The trail follows the bank of the Dudhkosi River. To assist acclimatization, this first day Treks is 3 to 4 hrs short distance. But if people are still interested to do more activities they will have an opportunity to do the side trip to monastery around in Phakding. And overnight at Lodge.

Day 04: Phakding to Namche Bazaar (3,430m) -5 to 6 hours
The trail follows the Dodh Kosi River banks and reaches in Tok Tok. You can see excellent views of Thamserku peak from here. Then trail climbs to Chomoa, site of an agricultural project farm, still trail climbs to Monju (2,840m) and enters the Sagarmatha National Park Area (1,148 sq km, established in 1976). Walking some distance up you will be at Jorsale (2830m) and after cross last (fifth number) bridge the trail again long climb on where you have the view of Mt. Everest, over the right Nupste (7,879m). After 5 to 6 hrs walking the trail reaches the street of Namche Bazaar at last. Stay overnight in Namche Bazaar overseers’ snow capped Mountains and Sherpa heritage.

Day 05: Acclimatization in Namche Bazaar and visit Khumjung Village (3,790m)
After having late breakfast walk for the sightseeing around Namche Bazaar then hike to the Everest View Hotel. The ideal place to overview some of the outstanding mountains such as Mt.Everest, Nupste, Ama Dablam, Kangtegha, Thamserku, kusum khangru, khongde and Khumbi yu La etc. While seeing spectacular view of mountains trail led you in khumjung valley, where can see Hillary School, ancient Monastery with Yeti skull and khunde Hospital, and then return back to Namche. If you have still willing to visit you can go mountaineering museum and visit the Sagarmatha Pollution Control Committee (SPCC) in Namche Bazaar you can spend some time interacting with the fun-loving Sherpa and Rai people in here. Above the police check post you will see Sagarmatha National Park headquarters and visitor center; it is open 8 am to 4 pm except Saturdays and government holidays. And overnight at Lodge.

Day 06: Namche Bazaar to Tyangboche (3,867m) -5 to 6 hours
After breakfast we start our trek with pleasant walk trail through the forest with magnificent view of mountains until Kenjoma, where the trail joins from Khumjung. After pass the small settlement Sanasa the trail drops towards Phunki Thanga (3,250m). Then it climbs steeply through forests on the Tangbuche monestary sits at 3,867m. The view from here is rightly deemed to be one of the worlds magnificent; Kwangde, Tawachee, Everest, Nuptse, Lhotse Ama Dablam, Kantega and Thamserku provide a stimulating panorama of Himalayan view. Stay overnight in Tengboche.

Day 07: Tyangboche to Dingboche (4,300m) -5 to 6 hours
After breakfast, trail descends down from Tengboche, through the rhododendron forest to Deboche and crossing a bridge over the raging Imja Khol River. The trail for Dingbuche follows the climbing route of Island peak and Phokalde peak etc. It is gateway to Chukung and farther beyond for the most challenging traverses towards Makalu area and Hinko Valley via Sherpani col (6,100m) and Amphu Laptsa pass( 5,780m) trips.

Day 08: Acclimatization day at Dingboche
On this day you may have full day rest or there are some places where you can go for a day hike; up to Chhukung(4,730m) for acclimatization (point of climbing famous Island peak) or climb up to Nagarjun Peak about two hours offer view of Imjatse Valley with Dingbuche village and Mt.Makalu(8,463m), Ama Dablam, Island peak etc. And back to Dingboche for overnight.

Day 09: Dingboche to Lobuche (4,930m) -5 to 6 hours
After your complete acclimatization, the trail heading you gradually climb up until Duglha offering stunning views of Tawachee and Cholatse.From Duglha trail directly up to the Khumbu Glacier for an hour, then left into the memorial area before reaching the village of Lubuche. In this stage the effects of the altitude will be kicking in and you can expect colder nights.

Day 10: Lobuche to Gorakshep (5,140m) - 3 hours & Everest Base Camp (5,364m) -2 to 3 hours
After breakfast the trek continues gently climb and sometime direct ascent to nearby glacier. The trail goes to Gorakshep is rocky and windy but it offers the good view of Mt. Pumori and there are beautiful views of the Everest Base camp and glacier with scenic view. After lunch, we ready for our adventure to the targeted destination and we continues our trek towards the Everest Base Camp and to the Khumbu Ice-fall, the path from here can be misleading, follow the lead Sherpa, every year the trail changes due to the movements of the glacier, the walk is quite strenuous due to the high altitude and thin air, the walk passes through over rocky dunes and moraine and streams, till you reach the base camp. If you are during the high expedition season have fell like city. It takes 2-3 hrs to get to base camp and after a grand time here go back over the journey to Gorekshep for the overnight at lodge.

Day 11: Gorakshep to Kalapater (5,550m) -2 hours & Stroll back to Pheriche (4,240m) -5 to 6 hours
Very in morning climb up 2 hour on our pace Kalapater for 360 degree view of the mountain peaks. When reaching the top, you will feel joyful as you achieve the moment that you been dreaming, since the planning of your journey. A small rocky peak “Kalapater” offer you beyond imagination as the Everest looks amazing, the panoramic view from this spot is something to cherish, and you feel it’s worth the hard climb up to here and to feel at the top of the world, and can be seen to the south Khumbu glacier sweeps below you, and you can also see the Everest Base camp down below on the moraine of Khumbu glacier and many mountains scenery; Pumari (7,145m), Lingtren (6,695m), Khumbutse (6,623m), Changtse (7,550m), Nupse (7879m), Everest itself etc. After breakfast in Gorakshep trek down to Dhugla then go staying high above the valley floor Pheriche, in Imja valley. It is the only place in Khumbu where barley is grown in the highest place; enjoy the scenery and overnight to hotel.

Day 12: Pheriche to Tyangboche (3867m) - 4 to 5 hours
Today you can fell easer heading downhill to a lower elevation from Pheriche the walk is pleasant all the way to Tyangboche. You can see very old pangboche Sherpa village, and further down to Tyangboche is one of the most beautiful place in the Himalaya the first thing that comes to your eye is the big Monastery or Gumba, then the large field with campsites and teahouses, lodges beneath the soaring majestic gorgeous peak Ama Dablam, Everest, Mt. Lhotse and Lhotse Shar towards north east and more peaks all around.

Day 13: Tyangboche to Namche Bazaar (3430m) - 4 to 5 hours
After breakfast the trail goes down through forest with pine, Jupiter, rhododendron and some few magnolia and birch trees with a great memory after crossing the suspension bridge over the Dudh Koshi River trek onwards to the Sanasa and re-tracks to Namche bazzar for stay overnight.

Day 14: Namche Bazaar to Lukla (2,800m) - 6 to 7 hours
After a long walk we'll have long last day trek back to Lukla today, we descend the long way before cross the bridge and further walk to Monju and stop in Phakding for lunch. We will remind again enjoying the lush green scenery around and passing through the incredible mountain scenery and local Sherpa village until Lukla. You'll have time to wander around the areas and guide will re-confirm your flight ticket and enjoy the last celebrate dinner with your crew and overnight at hotel.

Day 15: Fly back to Kathmandu.
Normally, the flight for Kathmandu is morning due to the wind in afternoon; sometime the flight time can be delayed due to bad weather and other reason beyond our control. Anyway we will fly back to Kathmandu and your guide will transfer to hotel then you may have time to relax after long journey and take back your breath and rest at your hotel rest of day.

Day 16: Farewell friend day in Kathmandu (1,350m)

In this pleasant day you may have full day at leisure either relax at hotel or explore the around Thamel. Today is day of ending your journey, so we would like offer you farewell dinner in Nepali typical Restaurant and hand over you Trip Certificate, Trekking Permit and TIMS Card for memory of Nepal trip.

Day 17: final Departure to your Destination
Today is free or last minute shopping for souvenirs or gift to your family, friends or relatives for you until departure flight/drive. Our assist will be transfer to the International Airport for your departure flight to your onwards destination.



K2 FACTS

The mountain is so remote, lying more than 65 miles of rugged mountain terrain from the nearest village, that it had no name. Instead it was given a surveyor’s designation (K for Karakorum Mountains), and a number, based on an initial guess that it was the second highest peak in the range. Once within a region nominally controlled by British India, K2 stands near Afghanistan, on the border between Pakistan and China, in an area most closely related by history to Kashmir. To say the least, it is a very colorful corner of the world in which to embark on an adventure.
K2 was long considered un-climbable, but it still drew exploratory mountaineers. At the same time that the British were laying siege to Everest, large teams of Italian and small teams of American climbers were risking it all on K2. Attempts in 1902, 1909, 1929, 1938, 1939 and 1953 all failed. In 1954, the Italians persevered: two climbers finally reached the summit. Even now, years can go by without a successful ascent. In five of the last ten years, no one summited K2. In 2006 four people summited K2 (and four others died trying), while hundreds climbed Everest.
The early failures were as colorful as later ascents. The 1902 expedition was exciting, with the leader being imprisoned and another climber threatening his teammates with a revolver at their highest camp. The 1909 expedition was lead by the Italian Duke of Abruzzi, traveling in style with his brass bed. This team was unable to climb more than a few hundred feet up the mountain. Twenty years later, the Duke’s nephew lead another K2 expedition, also failing to get much above base camp. The American attempt of 1938 reached the incredible height of 26,000 feet, only to be forced to retreat because no one remembered to carry the matches needed to light their stoves. The American attempt of 1939 ended with the mountain’s first tragedy. Millionaire Dudley Wolfe was trapped for days by a storm at 25,000 feet. A handful of Sherpas hoping to rescue him died trying to reach him. Wolfe’s remains, and much of his tent, were found at the base of the mountain in 2002, having been wiped from the upper slopes by an avalanche. The American expedition of 1953 again ended in tragedy. While lowering a dying Art Gilkey, wrapped in sleeping bags, down a steep slope in a raging blizzard, several members of the team slipped and tumbled down the face. Miraculously they were entwined in the rope holding Gilkey. Pete Schoenig arrested the fall of the 5 men by holding onto a single wooden ice axe. The exhausted and shaken team anchored Gilkey to the slope and sought a sheltered place to set up the camp. Returning minutes later, they discovered he had been wiped from the face of the mountain by an avalanche.
The first successful ascent, in 1954, started with over 700 porters, a dozen climbers, and a handful of scientists. Despite one of the climbers dying after 40 days on the mountain, the expedition pushed on. A team of two made the final ascent, with their oxygen running out and the descent being made in darkness. The successful climb, hailed in Italy as an event of national pride and unity, following their crushing defeats in the world wars, was soon embroiled in controversy. The two summiters manipulated their companions into carrying extra supplies to the highest camp, then hid the tent and ignored their cries for help. While they climbed to the summit, their teammates passed the night trapped on the slopes, without tents, stoves or sleeping bags.
To date, 246 climbers have summited K2, by 10 different routes, only 5 of which have ever been repeated. At least 55 climbers have died attempting K2, some caught in avalanches low on the mountain, others dying from exposure while returning from the summit. The stories surrounding K2 are epic, some steeped in superstition. The first five women to summit either died on the mountain or on a subsequent expedition. At the Gilkey Memorial, tin plates, with the names of the deceased stamped into them, flutter in the wind. Every year, the slowly churning glacier pushes human remains to the surface. Daily avalanches tear down the faces near base camp. While Everest looks tall, cold and indifferent to everyone that stands at its base, K2 appears fearsome and even vengeful.
As dangerous and deadly as K2 has been to those who've attempted its summit, for women, that experience has been downright catastrophic. Between 1986 and the start of the climbing season in 2004, only five women had reached the summit of K2 and all of them were dead; three on their descent and the two that made it off alive died soon after on other 8000 meter peaks. For some, K2 seemed to carry a curse for its female pioneers.
Recently, new chapters have been written in K2's climbing annals which have changed that dark history for women. Since 2004 five more women have reached the summit, and each survived her descent.


http://www.sharedsummits.com/index.php/K2-Facts.html

Your Bones!!! What is functions?


The skeletal system is a complex and multi-functional system. Its main functions are:


a.Support -Bone is the major supporting tissue of the body. It is a strong tissue that can support huge quantities of weight, and can be considered the load bearing foundation of our bodies. In addition to bone, cartilages provides a firm but flexible support in some structures such as our trachea, while ligaments attach to bones and help to join bones together and hold them firmly.



b.Movement-Our movement is achieved through the cooperative function of our muscles and our bones. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons, and through the presence of joints, allow for the movement of our limbs.



c.Protection -Bone is hard and firm, and is vital as a protective tissue for our most important organs. The skull surrounding and protecting the brain is the best example of bone performing such a function. Another example is the rib cage which surrounds and protects the heart and the lungs, as well as the other organs of our thorax.



d.Storage -The bones of the skeletal system also play a vital role in storage of certain minerals in our bodies. The most important minerals stored by the bones are calcium and phosphorus. Bones also store a small quantity of fat.


e.Production of blood cells -Some bones have cavities containing bone marrow which is a specialised tissue that gives rise to blood cells and platelets.



Bone Tissue
Adult bones are normally about 65% inorganic material and 35% organic material by weight. The inorganic material is primarily a calcium phosphate crystal called hydroxyapatite whose chemical formula is Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. The organic material is primarily collagen and proteoglycans. The collagen and the mineral components are the ones responsible for the functional characteristics of bones.

Bone tissue is generally divided into an extracellular bone matrix and bone cells:

i.Bone Matrix
-The bone matrix can be thought of as having the same functional structure as steel reinforced concrete. Collage fibres give the bone flexible strength like the steel bars in reinforced concrete, while the mineral component gives bones their compression (weight-bearing) strength just like the concrete in reinforced concrete. Without collage, bones become too brittle, and without hydroxyapatite, bones become too flexible.


ii.Bone Cells
-There are three types of bone cell, namely osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. These have different functions and origins.
#Osteoblasts produce the mineralised bone matrix through a process called ossification (or osteogenesis). Osteoblasts produce collage and proteoglycans and accumulate calcium and phosphorus ions. All these substances are released from the cell, and through the action of enzymes, hydroxyapatite crystals are formed that accumulate to form the bone matrix.
#Osteocytes are mature bone cells. Once an osteoblast is surrounded by the bone matrix, it becomes relatively inactive and is termed an osteocyte. Within the bone matrix, osteocytes occupy a space called lacunae, and extend processes called calculi into the bone matrix. It is around this cellular framework that the bone matrix develops.
#Osteoclasts are large specialised bone cells that are responsible for the breakdown or resorption of bone.

Bone tissue is classified according to the way bone tissue is laid down in the bone matrix into two classes of bone:

#Woven bone has collage fibres oriented randomly in several directions. It is formed early in bone development during our fetal stage, and is later remodelled into lamellar bone.
#Lamellar bone is mature bone. It is built of thin layers called lamellae. In each lamellae, collagen fibres are arranged parallel to one another.

Regardless of the arrangement of bone tissue (woven or lamellar), bones are classified according to the amount of space in relation to the amount of bone matrix within the bone. There are two classes of bones ;
#Cancellous bone has less bone matrix and more space. It is lighter than compact bone and, because of its sponge-like appearance, is sometimes referred to as spongy bone.
#Compact bone has more bone matrix and less space. It is denser and stronger than cancellous bone.

Bone Shapes-Bones are classified into four groups according to their shape, namely long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones.

Long bones-Long bones are longer than they are wide. The best examples of long bones are the bones of the upper and lower limbs. A long bone will have three major sections :

#Diaphysis, or the shaft, that is composed primarily of compact bone,


#Epiphysis which is the end of the bone, and is composed primarily of cancellous bone, and is covered in articular cartilage if it forms a joint,


#Epiphyseal plate is the section of the bone where growth in length occurs, and is also called the growth plate. It is located between the diaphysis and the epiphysis and is composed of hyaline cartilage. When a bone has stopped growing, the epiphyseal plate becomes ossified and forms the epiphyseal line.

Short bones -Are usually as wide as they are long. The bones of the wrist (carpals) are a good example of short bones. They have no diaphyses but may have small epiphyses. They are similar in composition to the epiphyses of long bones.


Flat bones -Are thin and narrow and are often curved. Examples of flat bones are some of the skull bones and the ribs. Flat bones usually have no diaphyses or epiphyses. They are built as a sandwich of cancellous bone sandwiched between two layers of compact bone.


Irregular bones -Have a variety of shapes that cannot be classified into any of the groups above. Examples include the vertebrae and the facial bones. They have no diaphyses but may have small epiphyses. They are similar in composition to the epiphyses of long bones.
The flat and irregular bones of the skull often contain air filled spaces called sinuses.

Your Heart!!!

Do you agree that the heart is just like a pump? Well, it is true. The heart functions as a muscular pump in our body. In this topic, you are going to learn all about the heart along with its cardiac cycle, circulation, electrical activity and pressure mechanism. Note that deoxygenated blood from the main veins flows into the vena cava. The blood from the vena cava goes into the right atrium, pumped into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve and out of the right side of the heart through the pulmonary artery. The blood then flows into the lungs where there is diffusion of gas whereby CO2 is released into the alveolus and O2 diffuses into the arterial side of the circulation. Blood rich in oxygen then goes into the pulmonary vein on its way into the left atrium. From the left atrium the blood flows into the left ventricle through the bicuspid (mitral) valve. The strong pumping action of the left ventricle forces oxygenated blood into the aorta and then through the arteries to supply oxygen to various tissues and organs of the body.

Parkinson, G. (2007, April 3). Circulatory system [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3ZDJgFDdk0

http://athome.harvard.edu/programs/hse/video/hse2_2_module.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/map-human-heart.html

Teluk Intan Perak Malaysia

Bandar Teluk Intan terletak di selatan negeri Perak, merupakan pusat pentadbiran dan bandar terbesar di daerah Hilir Perak. Ia terletak di 4` Utara dan 101.5` Timur.

Teluk Intan dilingkungi oleh aliran Sungai Perak dan Sungai Bidor. Bandar ini adalah bandar yang terbesar di selatan Perak berbanding dengan Kampar, Tapah, Hutan Melintang dan Bagan Datoh. Dari segi kedudukan bandar di Malaysia, Teluk Intan menduduki tempat ke-17. Di Perak menduduki tempat ketiga terbesar.

Bandar terdekat ialah Sabak Bernam, Bagan Datoh, Bidor, Tapah, Kampar dan Lumut. Bandar ini disambungkan dengan Lebuh raya Kayan ke Manjung, Lumut dan Pulau Pangkor. Laluan ke Tapah dan Bidor.

Sejarah ringkas

1874- John Anderson melaporkan Teluk Intan adalah satu penempatan terawal di Hilir Perak selain Pasir Berdamar, Batak Rabit dan Durian Sebatang.
1875- Teluk Intan menjadi pusat pentadbiran dan pengkalan oleh penjajah Inggeris setelah termeterinya Perjanjian Pangkor 1874.
Bandar ini lebih lewat berbanding Durian Sebatang, Pasir Bedamar dan Batak Rabit. Pada peringkat awal, Durian Sebatang adalah pusat pentadbiran sebagai pelabuhan untuk mengumpulkan bijih timah dari kawasan Batang Padang, Bidor dan Tapah.
Residen British ke-3, Sir Hugh Low meminta jasa baik Gabenor Negeri Selat untuk mewujudkan bandar baru pentadbiran di Teluk Malunting (Teluk Mak Intan sebagaimana pelat Hugh Low).
Ketika itu pemangku Gabenor Negeri Selat ialah General Sir Archibald Edward Harbord Anson (1826 – 1925). Anson setuju dengan cadangan Hugh Low, malah melukis pelan pertama bandar Teluk Intan. Anson dilantik sebagai pegawai daerah Teluk Intan dan bersara 1882.
15 Mac 1882 Bandar Teluk Anson diberi sempena namanya. Namanya diberikan oleh Hugh Low dalam persetujuan Majlis Negeri .
Namun Durian Sebatang terus kekal sebagai penghubung kepada pemunggahan hasil tempatan terutama Bidor dan Tapah.
Satu rancangan menyambungkan Teluk Anson dengan Durian Sebatang dan akan menyebabkan Teluk Anson menjadi sebuah pulau di dalam Sungai Perak.
1884 -pemangku Residen Perak Frank Swettenham musykil dengan cadangan terusan ini.
1880-an zaman kereta api di Perak telah menyebabkan peranan sungai sebagai jalan perhubungan telah berubah. Stesen kereta api dan pelabuhan yang kukuh dibina di Batak Rabit. Pelabuhan ini sibuk sehingga Perang Dunia Kedua.
Landasan kereta api menghubungkan Pelabuhan Teluk Intan dengan Ipoh, Kampar, Batang Padang, Pulau Pinang, Taiping dan Kuala Lumpur. Kereta api lebih mudah dan cepat dan boleh mengangkut banyak barang terutama bijih timah dan getah serta kayu balak.

Peranan pelabuhan Teluk Intan kedua penting selepas Pelabuhan Klang (Port Swettenham) dari tahun 1934 hingga 1940. Teluk Intan lebih penting berbanding dengan pelabuhan Pulau Pinang, Prai dan Port Dickson.

1938 -Teluk Intan dijadikan Bandar Diraja untuk Raja Muda Perak sehingga kini. Penetapan itu dibuat oleh Sultan Iskandar Shah (1918- 1938) yang ketika itu menjadi Sultan Perak.
Sultan Idris II menukar nama Teluk Anson kepada Teluk Intan semula.
1962 -Majlis Bandaran Telok Anson ditubuhkan iaitu sebuah Lembaga Kerajaan Tempatan. Dilantik seorang Pegawai Daerah.
1970-an peranan Teluk intan sebagai stesen kereta api dan pelabuhan ditamatkan kerana Sungai Perak semakin cetek dan hakisan tebing sungai menyebabkan gudang-gudang runtuh ke dalam sungai.
5 April 1980 Majlis Daerah Hilir Perak ditubuhkan bagi mengurustadbir kawasan Langkap, Chui Chak, Pelawan, Batu Dua Belas.
Majlis Bandaran Teluk Intan lebih aktif dan tertakluk kepada :
1.Akta Kerajaan Tempatan 1976
2.Akta Perancangan Bandar dan Desa 1976
3.Akta Jalan , Parit dan Bangunan 1974

Tempat menarik

Menara Jam Condong Teluk Intan- Menara ini menjadi titik tumpu kepada bandar Teluk Intan. Uniknya condong seperti Menara Pisa di Itali. Dibina pada tahun 1885 oleh Leong Choon Choong, setinggi 85 kaki dan ada 110 anak tangga.

Ia merupakan takungan air sebelum adanya Tangki Air Changkat Jong. Bangunan ini 3 tingkat dilengkapi dengan jam besar dan mengikut seni bina menara-menara di China. Kini, menara ini tidak digunakan lagi. Di bahagian bawahnya telah dihiasi dengan lanskap yang indah seperti pasu bunga, lantai marmar dan kerusi rehat untuk bersantai seisi keluarga. Pernah digunakan oleh Lembaga Perancang Keluarga Negara dan Persatuan Pengakap Teluk Intan.

Asal-usul nama

Teluk Mak IntanNama Teluk Mak Intan diambil dari seorang janda yang dikatakan mempunyai rupa paras yang cantik iaitu Mak Intan, beliau adalah seorang saudagar yang berasal dari Mandahiling, Sumatera. Beliau adalah peneroka yang membuka Teluk Intan di sekitar awal abad ke-19. Pada waktu itu, kawasan yang diterokai oleh Mak Intan dikenali sebagai Pekan Mak Intan. Berikutan penerokaan ini, ramailah orang seberang berketurunan Jawa, Rawa, Mandahiling, Minangkabau, Kampar dan kemudian India-Bombay datang mendiami kawasan yang baru diterokai itu, kebanyakan daripada mereka adalah para petani dan para pedagang barangan tradisi seperti rempah ratus, kain, inggu, kacip, parang dan sebagainya. Berkuatkuasa 1 Januari 1982, bandar ini bertukar nama dari Teluk Anson kepada Teluk Intan.

Info Lain

Nama asalnya Teluk Mak Intan. Seorang gadis bernama Intan dari sebuah keluarga keturunan Sumatera yang berpengaruh. Bapanya berulang-alik dari Sumatera ke sini untuk berniaga kain batik. Gadis ini mandi di tebing Sungai Perak bersama-sama rakan-rakannya. Cincin pemberian ibunya telah tenggelam dan lenyap di dalam lubuk Sungai Perak. Sejak itu diberi nama Teluk Mak Intan. Kemudiannya Telok Mak Intan telah ditukar nama kepada Teluk Anson sempena nama Jeneral Archibald Anson iaitu gabenor Inggeris yang datang ke Telok Mak Intan pada masa itu.

Cara ke sana

Ada 5 jalan bertumpu ke bandar Teluk Intan.

-Dari arah Plaza Tol Tapah, Tapah Road, Chenderong Balai dan Kampung Gajah.
-Dari arah Plaza Tol Bidor dan Kuala Lumpur
-Plaza Tol Kampar dan Kuala Lumpur.
-Dari arah Hutan Melintang, Sabak Bernam dan Bagan Datoh serta Klang.
-Dari Sitiawan dan Lumut melalui Lebuh raya Kayan.


Sumber >> http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teluk_Intan

http://www.mpti.gov.my/leaningtower

Ujian Kecergasan Jasmani Kebangsaan(UKJK)

UKJK (Ujian Kecergasan Jasmani Kebangsaan) National Physical Fitness Test

UKJK- Ujian Kecergasan Jasmani Kebangsaan (National Physical Fitness Test) This test is an internationally accepted procedure to assess the fitness level of an individual. From the results of this test, the individual will know his fitness level and take appropriate measures to improve his health and fitness status through proper exercise, diet and changes in his life-style. The test itself consists of 7 tests to measure the different fitness components. The fitness components tested are:

1. Stamina: This is the ability of the body to do work over a long period of time without feeling undue fatigue. Stamina is also known as Cardiovascular Fitness as it is related to the cardiovascular function of the body. This is the most important of all the fitness components.The test for this component is the 2.4 km run.

2. Strength: This is the force generated when muscles contract maximally.A persons ability to carry weights externally or internally (ie his own body) shows his strength. The test for this component is the body push ups,which is different for males and females.

3. Power: This is the force generated when muscles contract maximally in a given time. Thus if a person can jump or throw further , he or she has more muscle power. The test for this is the standing broad jump.

4. Agility and Speed: This is related to power, where muscle contraction is done quickly and the body is able to turn and twist efficiently. The shuttle run test is the test for this component.

5. Flexibility: This is the ability for the joints of the body to move in all the angles easily without feeling restricted. The test for this component is the sit and reach test.

6. Muscle Endurance: This is the ability for the mucles to contract over a sustained period of time. The test for this is the number of sit ups a person can perform in one minute.

7. Body Fat Composition: This test measures ones body fat % in the body. This is also a very important component of a persons fitness. The test involves measuring the weight, height, waist and hip measurements.

Reinhold Messner the eight-thousanders

Reinhold Messner lahir di Brixen, Trentino-Alto Aldige pada 17 September 1944 berumur 67 tahun adalah pendaki gunung berbangsa Itali yang tercatat sebagai orang yang pertama melakukan pendakian solo tanpa bantuan oksigen di Gunung Everest (1980). Beliau juga merupakan orang pertama yang mendaki empat belas puncak "eight-thousanders', puncak dengan ketinggian 8.000 meter di atas permukaan laut.

Pendakian solonya ke Everest, ketika itu tiada pendaki lain di pergunungan dan dianggap sebagai prestasi tunggal yang tiada duanya karena pegunungan ini sekarang sering didaki dalam berbagai kelompok dan sering terganggu dengan pendaki lain yang juga naik serentak.

Pada tahun 2004 beliau berjalan sejauh 2000 kilometer melintasi Gurun Gobi.

Empat belas puncak yang telah berjaya ditawan ;

1970: Nanga Parbat (8.125 m)
1972: Manaslu (8.156 m)
1975: Gasherbrum I (8.068 m)
1977: Dhaulagiri (8167 m)
1978: Gunung Everest (8846 m), Nanga Parbat (8.125 m)
1979: Qogir (8611 m)
1980: Gunung Everest (8.846 m)
1981: Shisha Pangma (8.012 m)
1982: Kanchenjunga (8.598 m), Gasherbrum II (8.035 m), Broad Peak (8.048 m), Cho Oyu (8.201 m - gagal)
1983: Cho Oyu (8.201 m)
1984: Gasherbrum I (8.068 m) dan Gasherbrum II (8.035 m) tanpa kembali ke base camp
1985: Annapurna (8.091 m), Dhaulagiri (8.167 m)
1986: Makalu (8.485 m), Lhotse (8.516 m)


Sumber >>> http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reinhold_Messner

Expedition to Mount Yushan Taiwan 3952 meters , 12,966 feet

Date of trek : October 2011



Cost : RM3000.00 Inclusive: Entrance fee, Transportation, Accommodation, Camping equipment. First aid, Guide,

Not inclusive : Air ticket MAS or Air Asia, Crampon, Insurance, porter and meal out of trek.

Budget all cost : RM 5000/-+

Requirement : For the trek on this trip the general rule is the more preparation you have done for it, the more you will enjoy it. The climb is pretty strenuous as we walk through hilly terrain with our back packs and the temperature is often hot and muggy changing to -5 Celsius at the top of Mt Yushan. Recommend that you undertake regular aerobic activities in three months before you trekking, particularly if you are not in the habit of regular exercise. Walking, jogging, swimming or riding a bike are all good ways to increase your aerobic fitness, which will allow you to enjoy the trek to its fullest. This trip is advisable to join organize training trip before join the trip.

Itinerary

Day 1 – KL to Taipei,Taiwan

Day 2 - Taipei to Alishan

Day 3 - Alishan to Tataga and trek to Paiyun lodge ( 8.5 Km )

Day 4 - Paiyun Lodge to the summit and back to Paiyun Lodge ( 2.4Km )

Day 5 - From Paiyun to Tataga and to Alishan - Overnight in Alishan

Day 6 - Alishan back to Taipei

Day 7 - Taipei flight back to KL


- Booking flight before Jun 2011 -
Interesting to join this trip please call or email to me
Ariffudin @012-3514586/ arriffudin6157@gmail.com

EVEREST FACTS



Mt. Everest 8848 meters or 29,029 ft*
*Note the National Geographic Society has determined the height as being 29,035 feet. However, this "new" height is not yet determined as official to our knowledge. As the norm with Everest, nothing is simple.

Longitude: 86º55’40" E

Latitude: 27º59’16" N

Nepal Name: Sagarmatha

Tibetan Name: Chomolungma

Time Line

1841: Sir George Everest, Surveyor General of India from 1830 to 1843, records the location of Everest.

1848: Peak b is surveyed the British, which ruled India; The height is calculated at 30,200 feet from measurements taken 110 miles away.

1852: The Great Trigonmetrical Survey of India determines the Peak XV is the highest mountain in the world.

1854: Peak b renamed Peak XV.

1856: Surveyor Andrew Waugh completes the first height measurement, declaring Everest to be 8840 meters high. (29,002 feet).

1865: Peak XV re-named Mt. Everest to honor Sir George Everest, the Surveyor General of India. Everest is known as Chomolungma in Tibet and Sagarmatha in Nepal.

1903: The Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, concerned about possible Russian influence inside Tibet, sends Sir Francis Younghusband to ostensibly negotiate "frontiers and trade". The Tibetans refuse to enter negotiations, so Younghusband leads a British Army Expedition to Lhasa. A treaty is eventually signed in September, 1904, after the Dalai Lama flees to Mongolia.

1904: A member of Younghusband's staff, J. Claude White, photographs the Eastern side of Everest from Kampa Dzong, 94 miles away. While not the first photograph of Everest ever taken, it's the first to show any significant details of the mountain.

1907: Natha Singh, a member of the British Indian Survey, obtains permission to enter the Mount Everest region from the Nepalese side. He maps the Dudh Kosi valley - gateway to the southern route up the mountain - all the way to the end of the Khumbu Glacier.

1913: Captain John Noel, a British military officer, travels to Tibet in disguise (at the time foreigners were forbidden in Tibet) to find the best way to approach Everest. He comes to within 60 miles of Everest, only to find his way blocked by an unexpected mountain range that did not appear on his faulty maps. Noel is able to view the top 1000 feet (300 meters) of Everest when it appears out of the shifting mists, a "glittering spire of rock fluted with snow".

1920: The Dalai Lama opens Tibet to outsiders after the political situation involving China and Russia relaxes somewhat. The Royal Geographic Society and the Alpine Club hold a joint meeting to discuss how to proceed with an expedition to Mount Everest. Explorers had reached both the North and South Poles, so the next "feat" was Everest. The Mount Everest Committee is established by Younghusband, and a formal resolution is passed stating that an expedition would take place the following year with reconnaissance as the first priority, (although a summit attempt was not discouraged). A full-scale summit attempt was to be launched the following year in 1922.

1921: The First British Everest Reconnaissance Expedition to the mountain, led by Lt. Colonel Charles Howard-Bury. This is George Leigh Mallory's first trip to the mountain. After spending ten weeks exploring the northern and eastern reaches of the mountain, on September 24, 1921, Guy Bullock and George Mallory were the first climbers to reach the North Col of Everest at an altitude of around 23,000 feet (7000 meters). The northern route up the mountain had now been established.

1922: The Second British Everest Expedition to the mountain, led by Brigadier General C.G. Bruce, following the same route reconnoitered the previous year. George Mallory returns along with climbers George Finch, Geoffrey Bruce, Henry Morshead, Edward Norton, Howard Somervell, and John Noel as expedition filmmaker. On May 22nd, Mallory, Norton, Somervell and Morshead make the first assault, and climb to 26,800 feet (8170 m) on the North Ridge before retreating. On May 23rd, George Finch and Geoffrey Bruce climb up the North Ridge and Face to 27,300 (8320 meters) feet using oxygen. On June 7th, Mallory leads a third attempt on the summit that claims the lives of seven Sherpa climbers in an avalanche below the North Col, the first reported deaths on Everest.

1923: While on a lecture tour in the United States, a reporter asks Mallory why he wants to climb Everest, and Mallory immortally replies "Because it's there".

1924: The Third British Everest Expedition to the mountain, led by Acting Leader Lt. Colonel Edward Norton after Brigadier General C.G. Bruce is indisposed due to a flare-up of malaria. As a result George Mallory is promoted to Climbing Leader. Geoffrey Bruce, Howard Somervell, and John Noel return from the previous year, along with newcomers Noel E. Odell and Andrew Comyn Irvine.

1924: June 4th: After weeks of appalling weather, a string of camps are established on the northern side of the mountain, culminating in Camp 6 at 26,700 feet (8140 meters) on the North Ridge. Norton and Somervell attempt an oxygenless ascent, following an ascending diagonal line across the North Face of the mountain towards the Great Couloir. After Somervell is forced to give up at about 28,000 feet (8500 meters), Norton continues alone, reaching a high point of 28,126 feet (8570 meters) near the top of the Great Couloir, a height record not exceeded by anyone for the next 29 years!

1924: June 8th: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine attempt the summit using oxygen and Irvine's modified oxygen apparatus. Noel Odell, climbing in support below, catches a glimpse of the climbers at 12:50 pm ascending a "great rock step" on the NE Ridge above. According to Odell they were behind schedule but climbing "with alacrity"; the first of many climbers on Everest to go for the summit too late. Odell originally thought he spotted the two climbers ascending the Second Step, but later changed his mind to the First Step when told how difficult the Second Step looked to a later generation of Everest climbers (the 1933 British Expedition). During the 1933 expedition, Andrew Irvine's ice ax is found on the upper slopes of the mountain at about 27,690 feet (8440 meters) and approximately 250 yards (meters) east of the First Step. Eric Simonson's 1999 Mallory & Irvine Research Expedition discovers an oxygen bottle that belonged to the pair near the base of the First Step, and Mallory's remains were found at 26,750 feet (8150 meters), on a line vertically below the ice ax position. No evidence of a successful summit bid has been found, nor have any signs of the two climbers been found above the Second Step, the key to the route. Despite the lack of hard evidence, the debate on whether they reached the summit of Everest continues to this day.

1931: March 19: The Mount Everest Committee is re-established with Sir William Goodenough as Chair. Concerned of the growing reputation of American and German climbers - the latter having gained much experience on Kangchenjunga - the Committee makes inquiries into the possibility of another British expedition to Everest. Eventually the Dalai Lama gives "reluctant permission" so that "friendly relations may not be ruptured".

1933: April 3: First flight over Mount Everest by two British Westland biplanes powered by turbocharged Pegasus engines. The planes take off from Purneah, India. Buffeted by downdrafts and Everest's plume, the flight fails to obtain a photo of the summit when the photographer blacks out due to a ruptured oxygen line. The flight is successfully repeated on April 19th, although the actual summit wasn't flown over this time.

1933: The Fourth British Expedition. A new generation of climbers attempts Everest under the Leadership of Hugh Ruttledge. These new climbers include Jack Longland, Frank Smythe, Eric Shipton, P. Wyn Harris, and L.R. Wager. Along with a powerful and spirited team of Sherpa "Tigers", Camp 6 is established on a ledge half-way up the Yellow Band at a height of 27,300 feet (8320 meters) - the Sherpas wanted to continue higher to a campsite at the base of the First Step, but it is wisely decided that they would not get back to the North Col before dark. Longland leads the Sherpas back down, but they are caught in a fierce and unexpected storm. Longland manages to keep his bearings and keeps the party en route down the spine of the North Arete. During the descent they discover the remains of the 1924 Camp 6, and even find a working battery-operated torch in the debris.

May 30th: The first oxygenless summit attempt by Wyn Harris and Wager. Their plan is to reconnoiter Mallory's ridge route, and if not feasible, attempt Norton's Great Couloir route instead. Early in the ascent they find Andrew Irvine's ice ax at 27,690 feet (8440 meters), some 250 yards (meters) east of the First Step. The pair continues traversing below the NE Ridge, but are unable to gain the Ridge via a shallow gully below the Second Step, having missed their only chance to gain the Ridge by ascending a 4th class gully on the north side of the First Step. They continue traversing into and across the Great Couloir, and manage to reach Norton's high point before admitting defeat.

June 1st: A second oxygenless attempt is made by Eric Shipton and Frank Smythe. In a truly superhuman effort, they make an attempt after spending two nights in the Death Zone without oxygen waiting for good weather. They follow essentially the same ascending line taken by Wyn Harris and Wager to the base of the First Step, but continue along Norton's traversing Great Couloir route. Shipton is forced to give up a little past the First Step, and Smythe continues alone, crossing the Great Couloir somewhat lower down than his predecessors where the ledges were more favorable. Smythe too gives up at Norton's high point, so the 1933 Expedition ends up unsuccessful.

1934: The eccentric Maurice Wilson attempts to solo Everest, having no mountaineering experience but possessing an inner faith to succeed. Camped at the base of the North Col, Wilson asks his Sherpas to wait ten days for him to return, after which they would be free to leave. He doesn't return, so the Sherpas return to Darjeeling, where Tenzing Norgay reports seeing them with large amounts of money. Wilson's body is later found at approximately 21,000 feet (6400 meters) below the North Col by members of the 1935 Reconnaissance Expedition. He was found in the remains of his tent; apparently he had died while in the act of taking off his boots. How far did he get? No one knows... His body was buried in a crevasse and it periodically resurfaces over the years as the East Rongbuk Glacier continues its steady advance downhill.

1935: Fifth British Expedition (Reconnaissance). A small post-monsoon expedition led by Eric Shipton, that was Tenzing Norgay's first trip to the mountain as a young porter. Expedition members include Bill Tilman, Dr. C.B.M. Warren, E.G.H. Kempson, L.V. Bryant, and E.H.L. Wigram. The expedition concentrates on exploring, surveying, and climbing in the Everest region (where off in the distance they can see that Everest is in perfect condition to climb). The party doesn't reach Rongbuk until early July, where coated in monsoon snow, the mountain is out of condition to climb. Nevertheless, since investigating the possibility of a post-monsoon attempt is one of the charges of the reconnaissance, they establish Camp III at the base of the North Col, where they find the remains of Maurice Wilson. On July 12 they reach the North Col with enough supplies for two weeks. Continuous monsoon snows prevent any further advance up the mountain, so the expedition splits into several groups that engage in an orgy of climbing and exploring in the region before returning to Darjeeling.

1936: Sixth British Expedition with Hugh Ruttledge returning as Leader. Also returning to Everest are Frank Smythe, Eric Shipton, P. Wyn Harris, E.G.H. Kempson, Dr. C.B.M. Warren, and E.H.L. Wigram along with two newcomers, P.R. Oliver and J.M.L. Gavin. Tenzing Norgay returns for his second expedition as a porter. For the first time, lightweight radio sets are taken to Everest. A large, strong, and experienced expedition with many hopes of reaching the top, it failed because of the early onset of the monsoon on May 25th. Interestingly enough, the only two expeditions to Everest that had a late monsoon were the '21 and '35 Reconnaissance!

1938: Seventh British Expedition. Led by Bill Tilman who advocated smaller, less expensive expeditions (although he is convinced to bring four oxygen sets along). Accompanying Tilman are Eric Shipton, Frank Smythe, C.B.M. Warren, P. Floyd, P.R. Oliver, and Noel Odell from the tragic 1924 expedition. Odell is now 47 years old, but extremely fit after climbing Nanda Devi in 1936 with Tilman. Returning yet again as a porter is the persistent Tenzing Norgay. Remembering the early onset of the monsoon suffered by the 1936 expedition, they arrive at Rongbuk early on April 6th and surprisingly find the mountain already clear of winter snow. Three weeks later Camp III is established below the North Col, but the weather is too cold and the party too ill to continue. They retreat to the Kharta Valley to recuperate at the lower altitude. When they returned to Everest a week later, the monsoon had unbelievably broken on May 5th and the mountain was covered in snow. Nevertheless a camp is placed on the North Col, and then Camp 6 is established on a scree slope below the Yellow Band at 27,200 feet (8290 meters). In back-to-back assaults, Smythe and Shipton are turned back by the deep snow, as are Tilman and Lloyd the next day. The expedition fails, but it had proved that a small expedition could place climbers in position for a serious summit bid.

1947: A successor to the old Everest Committee is formed - the Himalayan Committee of the Alpine Club and Royal Geographical Society.

1947: Canadian-born Brit Earl Denman attempts to illegally climb Everest from the North along with Sherpas Ang Dawa and Tenzing Norgay, the latter back after nine years for his fourth attempt on the mountain. After nearly being arrested by a Tibetan patrol en route, the trio reach the Rongbuk Monastery. Using Denman's woefully inadequate equipment, and suffering terribly from the cold, they reach the foot of the North Col but in a terribly weakened condition. After a feeble attempt on the lower slopes of the Col, they admit defeat and turn back. Denman is forced to walk part of the way back to Darjeeling in bare feet after his boots wear out. Amazingly the whole 600-plus mile (1000 km) roundtrip from Darjeeling to Everest and back took only five weeks by foot.

1950: In October the Communist Chinese invade Tibet, and Tibet falls under Chinese rule. Everest expeditions from the North are prohibited.

1950: After a palace revolution in which the ruling Rana family are overthrown, Nepal opens up to the West, partially as a result of the Chinese takeover in Tibet. Foreign expeditions are allowed access to the southern side of Everest for the first time.

1950: Anglo-American Nepal Reconnaissance. Organized and led by the American Dr. Charles Houston and including Bill Tilman. The group enters the Solu Khumbu region - homeland of the Sherpas - and explores to the base of the Khumbu Icefall. Tilman concludes that the route up into the Western Cwm is not a viable one!

1951: Without official permission from Nepal, and only a few months after the 1950 Anglo-American Nepal Reconnaissance, the Dane Klavs Becker-Larsen attempts to climb the Northern pre-war Everest route but via a southern approach. With a party of Sherpa porters and guides, he attempts to enter Tibet via the Lho La, and actually climbs about halfway up before being turned back by rockfall and his lack of experience (it was the first time he had ever used an ice ax!). Undeterred, Larsen crosses the Nampa La instead and reaches the Rongbuk Monastery. Several days later Larsen and two Sherpas attempt to climb the North Col but turn back after yet more rockfall. Larsen wisely gives up the attempt and returns to Nepal.

1951: British Reconnaissance supported by the Alpine Club and the Royal Geographic Society. A post-monsoon exploration led by Eric Shipton with M.P. Ward, T. Bourdillon, W.H. Murray, and New Zealanders Edmund Hillary and H. Riddiford, the expedition was forced to contend with swollen streams, washed-out bridges, leeches, and reluctant porters. On the 22nd of September they reached Namche Bazaar, and three days later left with the objective of scaling the Khumbu Icefall and entering the Western Cwm. From a vantagepoint on the lower slopes of Pumori, they could see that the route up to the South Col looked feasible. Eventually the expedition pushed the route almost completely through to the top of the Icefall before retreating.

1952: Swiss Expeditions sponsored by the Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research

Spring Attempt: led by Dr. E. Wyss-Dunant with climbers G. Chevalley, R. Lambert, R. Dittert, L. Flory, R. Aubert, A. Roch, J. Asper, E. Hofstetter, and Tenzing Norgay as Sirdar. The party ascends the Geneva Spur and places Camp VI on the South Col. Camp VII is placed at approximately 27,500 feet (8382 meters) on the SE Ridge. After a miserable night without sleeping bags or a stove, Tenzing Norgay and Raymond Lambert make an attempt using oxygen but fail below the South Summit at an altitude of 28,210 feet (8595 meters), beating Norton's height record by only 84 feet (25 meters)!

Post-Monsoon Attempt: led by G. Chevalley with climbers R. Lambert, E. Reiss, J. Buzio, A. Spohel, G. Gross, N.G. Dyhrenfurth. The indomitable Tenzing returns again as expedition Sirdar. Instead of climbing the Geneva Spur, the route is pushed up the Lhotse Face instead, now the standard route. Unfortunately the expedition is fraught with bad luck and the Sherpa Mingma Dorje is killed on the Lhotse Face by falling ice, the first Everest fatality in twenty years since Maurice Wilson. Climbing along with the same party, incredibly a second rope slips on the ice and falls 600 feet (180 meters) to the bottom of the slope. Miraculously no one else is injured. A camp is established on the South Col, but the arrival of winter's bitter cold and fierce gales puts an end to the attempt. The expedition lays the groundwork for 1953.

1952: Rumors of a post-monsoon Russian attempt from the North led by Dr. Pawel Datschnolian, possibly with the hope of beating the Swiss to the top and scoring major propaganda points in an age of Sputnik. There are reports that this expedition left Moscow on October 16th and eventually placed Camp VII at 26,800 feet (8170 meters) before six climbers (including Datschnolian) simply disappeared. The Russians deny the expedition ever took place and the Chinese have never made any mention of it. Interestingly enough, in an interview with the Tibetan Gonbu (also known as Gonpa), a member of the successful 1960 Chinese first ascent of the North Ridge, a "mystery camp" was encountered at 27,900 feet (8500 meters). Located above the Yellow Band, this camp could not have been placed there by any of the British pre-war expeditions. Was the camp placed there by this "mystery" Soviet expedition?

1953: British Expedition and FIRST SUMMIT. Led by Colonel John Hunt and consisting of climbers Dr. R.C. Evans, G. Band, T. Bourdillon, A. Gregory, Edmund Hillary, W.G. Lowe, C. Noyce, M.P. Ward, M. Westmacott, and C.G. Wylie. Returning as Sirdar from the Swiss attempts is yet again Tenzing Norgay. The route through the Icefall is completed by April 22, Camp VI is established at the foot of the Lhotse face at 23,000 feet (7000 meters), and after a lengthy delay, the South Col is reached via the Lhotse Face route pioneered by the Swiss the year before.

May 26: First Assault by Evans and Bourdillon from the South Col using closed-circuit oxygen sets. The same day Hunt leads a party of Sherpas from the South Col with the intent to establish Camp IX on the SE Ridge for the second assault party consisting of Hillary and Tenzing. Evans and Bourdillon reach the South Summit at 1 PM at an elevation of 28,750 feet (8770 meters), but are forced to descend due to the lateness of the hour, strong winds, and lack of oxygen.

May 29: Second Assault by Hillary and Tenzing using open-circuit oxygen sets. They leave Camp IX at approximately 27,900 feet (8500 meters) by 6:30 AM, and reach the S. Summit by 9 AM. After negotiating the 40 foot (12 meter) Hillary Step, they are the first to reach the summit of Everest, reaching the top at 11:30 AM. After descending to the South Col, they are met by George Lowe where Hillary states: "Well, George, we knocked the bastard off!"

1955: The height of Everest is adjusted by 26 feet to 29,028 feet (8848 meters).

1956: Swiss Everest/Lhotse Expedition led by A. Eggler with W. Diehl, H. Grimm, Dr E. Leuchtold, F. Luchsinger, J. Marmet, F. Muller, E. Reiss, A. Reist, E. Schmied, H. Von Gunten and Sirdar Pasang Dawa Lama. The South Col was reached by the middle of May, and a successful summit bid was done on Lhotse via the very difficult North ridge on May 18 by Reiss and Von Gunten. On May 23 from a high camp at 27,500 feet (8400 meters) on the SE Ridge, Schmied and Marmet reach the summit. The following day Reist and Von Gunten also reach the summit.

1958: Joint Chinese/Russian reconnaissance from the North that reaches 21,000 feet (6,400 meters) below the North Col. The plan was for the two countries to return later for a joint assault, but this expedition never materialized after relations between the two states deteriorate.

1960: Chinese and Tibetan team of 214 men and women, led by Shih Chan- chun, makes the first summit of Everest via the North Col and Northeast Ridge. Long doubted by Western mountaineers because of the lack of a summit photo and the claim of summiting at night, the photos and film the Chinese did release reveal that they at least climbed the Second Step, the key to the route (although Reinhold Messner claims he possesses documentation proving they didn't climb it, so far this evidence has not been produced). The final assault party of Wang Fu-chou, Liu Lien-man, Chu Yin-hua, and the Tibetan Gonbu (also known as Gonpa) assaulted the final 15 foot (5 meter) Second Step headwall using pitons and team tactics. After Liu Lien- man repeatedly falls off attempting to lead the pitch, Chu Yin-hua takes off his boots and socks, and using a shoulder stand climbs the
last vertical pitch in bare feet! Exhausted by his effort, Liu Lien- man is forced to halt at 28,600 feet (8,700 meters), but the remaining three climbers make it to the summit where they purportedly leave a plaster bust of Chairman Mao by a rock outcrop.

1960: First Indian Expedition led by Brigadier G. Singh. Climbers Capt. N. Kumar, Sonam Gyatso, and Sherpa Nawang Gombu reach 28,300 feet (8625 meters) just below the South Summit before retreating in a violent storm and driving snow.

1962: Illegal four-man expedition led by the American Woodrow Wilson Sayre following the pre-war British route up the North Col and NE Ridge. Possessing a permit to climb Gyanchung Kang from the Nepalese side, the party ascends the Ngozumpa Icefall with Sherpa support, but then surreptitiously crosses the Nup La into Tibet. Without porters and relying on a grueling schedule of load-shuttling that covers the same ground three times daily, the group reaches the base of the North Col in nineteen days. They climb the North Col, but a fall lands Sayre and partner Roger Hart in a crevasse where they survive the night by wrapping themselves up in a tent. Undeterred, Sayre and Norman Hansen set off the very next day up the North Ridge, but can only climb 1,200 feet (400 meters) in the next two days. Realizing that they are beaten, they turn back but Sayre slips and falls 600 feet (200 meters) down the North Ridge snowfield before stopping. Incredibly, the now emaciated and half-starved expedition is able to return back over the Nup La into Nepal without encountering Chinese patrols.

1962: Second Indian Expedition with Major John Dias as leader. Returning to the SE Ridge route, climbers Sonam Gyatso, Hari Dang, and Mohan Kohli are forced to retreat from a high point of 28,600 feet (8720 meters) because of bad weather.

1963: American Expedition with Norman Dyhrenfurth as leader and including A. Auten, Barry Bishop, Jake Breitenbach, J. Corbet, D. Dingman, D. Doody, R. Emerson, Tom Hornbein, Lute Jerstad, J. Lester, Willi Unsoeld, and Jim Whittaker. A huge expedition, costing almost $400,000 and supported by the National Geographic Society, over 900 porters carry 29 tons of food and equipment to the base of the mountain. Base Camp is established at the foot of the Khumbu Icefall on Mar 21 and the route through the icefall prepared soon after. Jake Breitenbach is killed by collapsing seracs in the Icefall but the expedition continues. The expedition splits into two parties - the West Ridgers and the South Collers.

First Assault: May 1 From Camp 6 at 27,450 feet (8370 meters) on the SE Ridge, Jim Whittaker and Sherpa Nawang Gombu reach the summit in strong winds at 1 PM. Whittaker becomes the first American to summit Everest.

Second Assault: After a tent at Camp 4W - including occupants - is nearly blown off the West Shoulder by hurricane force winds, Camp 5W is placed in the Hornbien Couloir at the foot of the Yellow Band at 27,250 feet (8300 meters). Tom Hornbein and Willi Unsoeld squeeze their way through the couloir and ascend a 60 foot (20 meter) headwall before emerging onto the upper summit pyramid at 27,900 feet (8500 meters). The pair then traverse across to the West Ridge proper, reaching the summit at 6:15 PM. They are forced to descend the SE Ridge where they meet Jerstad and Bishop who had summited at 3:30 PM. The four men descend to around 28,000 feet (8500 meters) before having to bivouac for the night on the ridge proper. They survive a long, cold night out in the open and descend safely to the South Col the next day. Unsoeld later loses most of his toes to frostbite. The first new route and the first traverse of Everest.

1965: Third Indian Expedition, with Commander M.S Kohli as leader. On May 20, 1965 they succeed when A.S. Cheema and Sherpa Nawang Gombu ascend the SE Ridge. Gombu becomes the first person to summit Everest twice (the 11th and 17th summit). Out of the first seventeen summits of Everest, Nawang had two of them! Additional summits were achieved by Sonam Gyatso, Sonam Wangyal, C.P. Vohra, Ang Kami, H.P.S. Ahluwalia, H.C.S. Rawat, and Phu Dorje.

1966-1969: Nepal is closed to mountaineering during this politically tense period involving antagonists India and China.

1969: Japanese SW Face Reconnaissance Expeditions. In the Spring, a party including Naomi Uemura enters the Western Cwm and probes the lower slopes. The Japanese return in the autumn with Uemura and Masatsugu Konishi, and the route is pushed up the Central Gully to the base of the Rock Band before the expedition returns home, convinced that a full-scale expedition could succeed.

1970: Japanese SW Face Expedition led by the seventy-year old veteran Saburo Matsukata. A massive expedition with 39 climbers, seventy-seven Sherpas and a woman, Setsuko Watanabe. Unable to improve on the previous year's reconnaissance efforts due to poor snow conditions and rockfall, the expedition switches to the standard South Col route. Teruo Matsuura and Naomi Uemura reach the summit on May 11, followed by K. Hirabayashi and Chottare Sherpa on the next day. Watanabe sets an altitude record for women by climbing to the South Col.

1970: Japanese Ski Expedition. Climbing along with the SW Face expedition, Yuichiro Miura skis from the South Col to the bottom of the Lhotse Face on May 6. Reaching speeds of 100 mph (160 kph), Miura slows himself with a parachute but loses control after hitting some rocks. He slides unconscious about 600 feet (200 meters) down the icy slopes, and fortunately stops just short of a huge crevasse.

1971: International Expedition. Norman Dyhrenfurth leads an expedition with thirty climbers from thirteen different countries including Don Whillans, Dougal Haston, Naomi Uemura, Pierre Mazeaud, and H. Bahuguna. This optimistic expedition hopes to simultaneously climb the SW Face and the West Ridge Direct, but is fraught with one- upsmanship, personality conflicts, and organizational problems. Bahuguna is caught out in a storm at Camp 3W. A rescue party climbs up to help him and he is found clipped onto the fixed ropes, missing a glove, his bare midriff exposed to the storm, and his face coated in ice. When it proves impossible to move him horizontally, they try to lower him vertically into the shelter of a crevasse, but the rope runs out before they can reach it a la Tony Kurtz on the Eiger Nordwald. Whillans utters his famous remark, "Sorry Harsh old son, you've had it." The expedition falters after his death, but Whillans and Haston push the SW Face route to 27,400 feet (8,350 meters) before lack of equipment forces an end to the expedition.

1971: Argentine Post-Monsoon Expedition. A post-monsoon expedition where J. Peterek and U. Vitale reach 26,600 feet (8,100 meters) before being defeated by high winds and an unfavorable weather forecast.

1972: European Expedition to the SW Face led by Dr. Karl Herrligkoffer and including climbers Don Whillans, Doug Scott, Hamish MacInnes, Felix Kuen, Adolf Huber, Werner Haim, and Leo Breitenberger. The expedition is plagued by personality conflicts and the withdrawal of many of the climbers, but the route is pushed as high as 27,200 feet (8,300 meters) before the attempt is abandoned.

1972: British SW Face Expedition led by Chris Bonington including climbers Mick Burke, Nick Estcourt, Dougal Haston, K. Kent, Hamish MacInnes, Tony Tighe, and Doug Scott. A post-monsoon expedition confronted with terrible weather, an elevation of 27,200 feet (8,300 meters) is reached below the Rock Band before retreating. Tragically, Tony Tighe is killed in the Icefall during the descent.

1973: Italian Expedition. Another huge expedition with sixty-four members led by Guido Monzino. Helicopters are used to shuttle equipment past the Khumbu Icefall and one hundred Sherpas are also employed. Eight climbers succeed via the South Col Route, including 16 year old Sambhu Tamang of Nepal. It is later revealed that Sambhu was actually 18. Italian Summiters were Rinaldo Carrel, Mirko Minuzzo, Fabrizio Innamorati, Virginio Epis, and Claudio Benedetti.

1973: Japanese Expedition. Led by Michio Yuasa, this large forty- eight man expedition attempted both the SW Face and South Col route. The SW Face party reaches 27,200 feet (8,300 meters) before giving up. Success is achieved on the South Col route when Hisahi Ishiguro and Yasuo Kato reach the summit, the first post-monsoon success on the mountain.

1974: Spanish Expedition attempts the South Col route. A high camp is placed on the SE Ridge, and twice teams were in position for a summit attempt, but both times are defeated by high winds. The second summit team manages to reach 27,900 feet (8,500 meters) before retreating.

1974: French West Ridge Expedition. Led by Gerald Devouassoux, a post- monsoon attempt to climb the West Ridge Direct starting from the Lho La. Because of political considerations, they don't climb the slopes leading up to the Lho La directly, but start from the base of the Khumbu Icefall; the expedition eventually reaches the West Shoulder by September 9. A major lapse in monitoring weather reports prevents them from learning that an unexpected return of warm monsoon weather is about to occur. The tragic result is that Gerald Devouassoux and five Sherpas are swept away in an immense avalanche, after which the expedition is called off.

1975: Japanese Ladies Expedition led by Mrs Eiko Hisana. On May 16 Junko Tabei of Japan became the first woman to reach the summit via the South-East Ridge.

1975: Chinese Expedition led by Shih Chan-chun, leader of the 1960 Chinese ascent, and organized by a "Party Committee" that included Wang Fu-chou, one of the 1960 summiters. A military-style expedition that uses soldiers to carry supplies to the North Col and siege tactics to progressively reposition camps higher and higher up the mountain. A final assault camp is established between the First and Second Steps at 28,500 feet (8,680 meters) by the Mushroom Rock, and the Second Step is prepared with an aluminum ladder to overcome the final vertical headwall pitch. A team of nine climbers - eight
Tibetan and one Chinese - reaches the summit on May 27, including the Tibetan woman, Phantog. Phantog becomes the second woman to summit Everest, losing this honor to Junko Tabei by only a few days. She is the first woman to summit from the Tibetan side.

1975: British SW Face Expedition (post-monsoon). Leader Chris Bonington and including H. MacInnes, Peter Boardman, Martin Boysen, P. Braithwaite, Micke Burke, M. Cheney, C. Clarke, Nick Estcourt, Dougal Haston, and Doug Scott. Base Camp is reached on August 22 and Advance Base is established on September 2. The expedition is blessed with good weather and smooth logistics, resulting in the steady placement of camps up the Central Gully to Camp 5 at 25,500 feet (7800 meters). The Rock Band is ascended via a gully on the left side by Estcourt and Braithwaite, who have some sporty moments when their oxygen runs out on dicey pitches at 27,000 feet (8200 meters). The upper icefield is reached via an awkward outward-sloping ramp; Haston and Scott establish Camp 6 a few days later at an elevation of 27,300 feet (8300 meters). The next day they fix 1,500 feet of rope on the upper snowfield, extending the route towards a gully leading up to the South Summit.

First Assault: Sept 24: Haston and Scott reach the South Summit at 3 PM after 11 hours of climbing. After preparing a snow cave and drinking a brew, they continue on to the summit which they reach at 6 PM. They descend to the South Summit and bivouac in the snowcave. After a freezing, oxygenless night complete with hypoxic conversations with feet, toes, and imaginary companions, the pair descend to Camp 6 safely, passing the second assault party on their way up.

Second Assault: Sept 26: Boardman and Sirdar Pertemba reach the summit and descend in a gathering storm, where they encounter Mick Burke just below the summit. They wait for him as long as possible before descending, but Burke is never seen alive again. He probably made the top but fell off of the heavily corniced summit ridge while descending in the deteriorating conditions.

1978: First Ascent without bottled oxygen: Peter Habeler (Austria) and Reinhold Messner (Italy) 5/8/78 via the South-East Ridge

1978: The first European woman and the third woman to summit Everest, Wanda Rutkiewicz, reaches the top. Wanda goes on to become known as the greatest woman climber ever.

1979: The first woman, Hannelore Schmatz, dies on Everest descending from the Summit after becoming only the 4th woman to Summit Everest.

1979: China opens up the north side (Tibet) again to western climbers.

1979: Andrej Stremfeli and Nejc Zaplotnik Summit via the true West ridge and descend via the Hornbein Couloir on 5/13/79.

1980: First Winter ascent Krzysztof Wielicki (Poland) 2/17/80

1980: Solo: Reinhold Messner (Italy) 8/20/80 via the North Col to the North Face and the Great Couloir. He climbed for three days entirely alone from his base camp at 6500 meters without the use of artificial oxygen via the North Col/North Face route.

1982: Laurie Skreslet first Canadian to reach the Summit.

1983: Lou Reichardt, Kim Momb, and Carlos Buhler reached the Summit via the East or Kangshung face on 10/8/83.

1984: Tim Macartney-Snape and Greg Mortimer reached the Summit via the North Couloir.

1988: Marc Batard, a Frenchman, sets the speed record on Everest on the South East ridge route from EBC to the Summit in 22.5 hours.

1988: The First American Woman, Stacey Allison reaches the Summit of Everest.

1990: First Married Couple to summit together: Andrej & Marija Stremfelj (Slovenia), 10/7/90.

1990: First Son of a summiter to Summit Everest: Peter Hillary (New Zealand) 5/10/90

1990: First father and son to summit together: Jean Noel Roche and his son Roche Bertrand aka Zebulon. They flew together on a tandem paraglider from the south Col. They landed at base camp on the 7th of October 1990. Roche Bertrand was 17 at the time and became the youngest person to ever climb Everest at the time.

1992: First case of two brothers to reach the Summit together: Alberto and Felix Inurrategui September 25, 1992.

1993: The first Nepalese woman, Pasang Lhamu Sherpa, summits Everest but dies descending from the Summit on 4/23/93.

1995: The first ascent of the Northeast Ridge, completed by Kiyoshi Furuno (Japan), Shigeki Imoto (Japan), Dawa Tshering Sherpa, Pasang Sherpa, and Nima Sherpa.

1995: George Mallory, grandson of George Leigh Mallory, reaches the Summit of Everest.

1996: 15 die on Everest, the most in a single year, including the most successful guide of his time, the great climber Rob Hall.

1996: Ang Rita Sherpa (born 1947), Summits Everest for the 10th time. (1983,1984,1985,1987,1988,1990,1992,1993,1995,and 1996 all ascents without bottled oxygen.)

1996: The first ascent of the North-Northeast couloir by Peter Kuznetzov, Valeri Kohanov and Grigori Semikolenkov on 5/20/96.

1996: North Side: Fastest Ascent via the standard North Col-north ridge-north face Route: Hans Kammerlander (Italian) 5/24/96, 16 hours 45 minutes from base camp. He left BC at 6400 meters at 5pm on May 23, 1996 and was on the Summit 16 hours 45 minutes later at 9:45am the next day. He descended most of the route on skis.

1999: On May 12, 1999: Lev Sarkisov (2/12/38) became the oldest man to summit Everest. His record was later broken, but Lev is a special person. Lev, from Georgia, was 60years, 161 days young when he reached the Summit.

1999: May 6, 1999: Babu Chiri Sherpa spent 21 hours and 30 minutes on the Summit of Everest.

1999: George Mallory's body is found by and expedition lead by Eric Simonson. The mystery remains unanswered.

1999: The National Geographic Society revised the elevation of Everest to 29,035 feet (8850 meters). Nepal does not accept the revised elevation.

2000: New Speed Record Nepal Side: Babu Chiri Sherpa; from Everest base camp to the Summit via the South East ridge in 16 hours and 56 minutes on May 21st, 2000.

2000: Apa Sherpa Summits for the 11th time.

2000: Oldest woman: Anna Czerwinska (born 7/10/49) climbed Everest from Nepal side on 5/22/2000.

2000: First true Ski descent: Davo Karnicar

2001: Roche Bertrand and his wife Claire Bernier Roche flew together on a tandem paraglider from the North side Summit of Everest. The paraglider arrived at ABC 8 minutes later...This first husband and wife to fly from the Summit together !

2001: Stefan Gatt the first to Snowboard from the Summit of Everest.

2001: Marco Siffredi on his Snowboard completed the first-ever descent of Everest on a snowboard from the Summit to ABC.

2001: At 16 Temba Tsheri Sherpa become the youngest person to Summit Everest.

2001: American Sherman Bull, at age 64, is the oldest person to summit Mount Everest.

2001: American Erik Weihenmayer becomes the first ever blind person to Summit Everest.

2003: Yuichiro Miura Summited Everest at 70 to become the oldest man to reach the Summit. He summited with his son. Gota Miura.

2003: American Gary Guller become the first person with only one arm to Summit Everest.

2003: George Dijmarescu Summits Everest five times from the North in FIVE YEARS!

2003: Apa Sherpa Summits Everest for a record 13th time.

2003: The Chinese Broadcast LIVE from the Summit of Everest again.

2003: Jess Roskelley Become the youngest American to Summit Everest

2003: Babu's Sherpa Speed ascent record is broken

2003: Three Brothers Summit Everest on the same day

2003: And more to come....

Everest Summits and deaths

The Quest for 8000 with many stats on 8000 meter peaks

http://www.everestnews.com/everest1.htm

The 14; 8000 Meter Peaks

Peak Name; Height in Meters; Location (s); First To Summit

1.Everest ;8848 Nepal/China ;(Tibet) 1953; Sir E. Hillary, T. Norgay
2.K2 ;8611 Pakistan/China ;1954; A. Compagnoni, L. Lacedelli
3.Kangchenjunga ;8586 Nepal/India ;1955; G. Band, J. Brown
4.Lhotse ;8516 Nepal/China (Tibet) ;1956; F. Luchsinger, E. Reiss
5.Makalu ;8463 Nepal/China (Tibet) ;1955; J. Couzy, L. Terrary
6.Cho Oyu ;8201 Nepal/China (Tibet) ;1954; S. Joechler, H. Tichy, P. Dawa Lama
7.Dhaulagiri ;8167 Nepal ;1960; K. Diemberger, P. Diener, M. Dorji, E. Forrer, N. Dorji, A. Schelbert
8.Manaslu;8163 Nepal ;1956; Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu Sherpa
9.Nanga Parbat ;8126 Pakistan ;1953; H. Buhl
10.Annapurna I ;8091 Nepal ;1950; M. Herzog, L. Lachenal
11.Gasherbrum I ;8068 Pakistan/China ;1958; Andrew Kaufman, P. Schoening
12.Broad Peak ;8047 Pakistan/China ;1957; H. Buhl, K. Diemberger, M. Schmuck, F. Wintersteller
13.Gasherbrum II ;8035 Pakistan/China ;1956; Larch, F. Moravec, H. Willenpart
14.Shishapangma ;8027 China (Tibet) ;1964; H. Ching & nine climbers

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